Xbar R Charts with JMP

Xbar R Chart

The Xbar R chart is a control chart for continuous data with a constant subgroup size between two and ten.

  • The Xbar chart plots the average of a subgroup as a data point.
  • The R chart plots the difference between the highest and lowest values within a subgroup as a data point.

The Xbar chart monitors the process mean and the R chart monitors the variation within subgroups. The Xbar is valid only if the R chart is in control.
The underlying distribution of the Xbar-R chart is normal distribution.

Xbar Chart Equations

Xbar chart

Data Point: Xbar R EQ1

Center Line: Xbar R EQ2

Control Limits: Xbar R EQ3


  • m is the subgroup size
  • k is the number of subgroups.

A2 is a constant depending on the subgroup size.

R Chart Equations

R chart (Rage Chart)
Data Point:

Center Line:  Xbar R EQ4

Upper Control Limit: Xbar R EQ6

Lower Control Limit: Xbar R EQ7


  •  m is the subgroup size and k is the number of subgroups
  • D3 and D4 are constants depending on the subgroup size.

Use JMP to Plot Xbar-R Charts

Data File: “Xbar-R” tab in “Sample Data.xlsx”

Steps to plot Xbar-R charts in JMP:

  1. Analyze -> Quality & Process -> Control Chart -> Xbar

Xbar R chart JMP_1.1
Fig 1.1 Analyze>Quality & Process>Control Chart>Xbar

  1. Select Measurement in Process
  2. Select Subgroup ID in Sample Label
  3. Be sure the check Xbar and R check boxes

Xbar R chart JMP_1.2
Fig 1.2 Control Chart selections

  1. Click OK

Xbar R chart JMP_1.3
Fig 1.3 Test Selection

Xbar-R Charts Diagnosis

Xbar-R Charts:
Since the R chart is in control, the Xbar chart is valid.

Xbar R chart JMP_1.4
Fig 1.4 Xbar-R Chart Diagnosis

In both charts, there are not any data points failing any tests for special causes (i.e. all the data points fall between the control limits and spread around the center line with a random pattern). We conclude that the process is in control.

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