Six Sigma Fundamentals

Six Sigma Fundamentals

Process Maps | VOC | CTQ | COPQ | Pareto Charts

Defining A Process

The Basic Method of Defining and Understanding a Process is the Process Map.

Four Important Process Map Symbols

Six Sigma Fundamentals

Terminator (Oval):

Shows the start and end points of a process.

Action / Task (Rectangle):

Indicates a single process step.

Decision (Diamond):

Indicates a question with two choices (e.g., Yes/No)

Flow Line (Arrow):

Shows the direction of the process flow.

High Level Process Map

The High-Level Process Map Oversimplifies! – No More Than 4-6 Steps.

High Level Process Map

1. Define the boundaries (beginning and ending) of the process you want to map.

2. Define and sort the process steps with the flow. - consult with process owners and SMEs

3. Fill the step information into the appropriate process symbols and plot the diagram.

Walk the Process

Keep the High Level Process Map Simple | Also Known As a "Flow Chart"

Detailed Process Map

The Detailed or Level 2 of a Multi-Level Process Map
Takes Each Step of a High-Level Map and Breaks Them Down into 2-4 Steps.

Detailed Process Map: Level 2

Multi-Level Process Maps



Level-One: High Level Process Map (4-6 Steps)

High Level Process Map



Level-Two: Detailed Process Map | 2-4 Steps per Level-One Step

Detailed Process Map: Level 2



Level-Three: Detailed Process Map | 2-4 Steps per Level-Two Step

Detailed Process Map: Level 3

Functional Process Maps

The Functional Process Map Adds the Dimension of Function
or Department and Identifies the Party Performing the Step.

Functional Process Map

VOC and CTQs


VOC stands for “Voice of the Customer.”

VOC is a data-driven method to discover customer wants and needs.

VOC is an important component to a successful Six Sigma project.

Other “Voices” need to be heard as well:

VOC: Voice of the Customer.

VOB: Voice of the Business.

VOA: Voice of the Associate.


Gathering VOC

Gathering VOC Should be Done Methodically.
There are Two General Approaches to Gathering VOC. Direct and Indirect.

Voice of the Customer

Critical to Quality: CTQ

Critical to Quality

Kano Diagram

Kano Diagram

Translating CTQs into Requirements

Translating CTQs into Requirements

Cost of Poor Quality

Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) is the Expense Incurred Due to Waste, Inefficiencies, and Defects.

Cost of Poor Quality

Pareto Principle

Pareto Principle

Introduced in the early 1900’s by Economist Wilfried Fritz Pareto (Vilfredo Pareto)

Pareto Chart

Pareto Chart

Quiz Six Sigma Fundamentals

Six Sigma Study Guide