U Chart with JMP

What is a U Chart?

The U chart is a type of control chart used to monitor discrete (count) data where the sample size is greater than one, typically the average number of defects per unit.

Defect vs. Defective

Remember the difference between defect and defective?
A defect of a unit is the unit’s characteristic that does not meet the customers’ requirements.
A defective is a unit that is not acceptable to the customers.
One defective might have multiple defects. One unit might have multiple defects but still be usable to the customers.

This control chart monitors the average defects per unit. It plots the count of defects per unit of a subgroup as a data point. It considers the situation when the subgroup size of inspected units for which the defects would be counted is not constant. The underlying distribution of the U-chart is Poisson distribution.

U Chart Equations

Data Point:       U Chart EQ1

Center Line:     U Chart EQ2

Control Limits: U Chart EQ3


  • ni is the subgroup size for the ith subgroup
  • k is the number of subgroups
  • xi is the number of defects in the ith subgroup

Use JMP to Plot a U Chart

Data File: “U.jmp”

Steps to Plot a U Chart:

  1. Analyze -> Quality & Process -> Control Chart -> U
  2. Select Count of Defects in Process
  3. Select Count of Units Inspected in Unit Size
  4. Click OK

U Chart Diagnosis


Model summary: Since the sample sizes are not constant over time, the control limits are adjusted to different values accordingly. The data point circled in above falls beyond the upper control limit. We conclude that the process is out of control.  Further investigation is needed to determine the special causes that triggered the unnatural pattern of the process.


About Lean Sigma Corporation

Lean Sigma Corporation is a trusted leader in Lean Six Sigma training and certification, boasting a rich history of providing high-quality educational resources. With a mission to honor and maintain the traditional Lean Six Sigma curriculum and certification standards, Lean Sigma Corporation has empowered thousands of professionals and organizations worldwide with over 5,300 certifications, solidifying its position and reputation as a go-to source for excellence through Lean Six Sigma methodologies.